Data and Information concepts
Data and Information concepts

Data and Information concepts

Hello readers today I am going to give you information related to basic concepts in information technology.  Today we are going to discuss data and information concepts. So far I have given you many information related to database and programming. Today I have thought about sharing my knowledge related to data and information concepts with you. Some needs these information also. So this post is for you. If you are interested in learning these basic concepts you can read this post. I hope to write many posts like this. Let’s get started.

Topic Outline

  • What is data
  • What are Information
  • Difference between data and Information
  • Characteristic of Information
  • Types of data
  • Applicability of Information for day to day life
  • Abstract model of information creation
  • Quick Rap

What is data?

Firstly we are going to see what is data. All our information technology starts with the concept data. So first of all let’s understand what is data. Data means raw facts. They are not processed. Data can be a number, word, name anything. We can’t have an idea by looking at data.

Examples for dataAlice, Jane, 25, London


What are information?

Now let’s see what are information. Information means processed data. When set of data are processed and organized it became information. Information are collection of data.

Examples for informationAlice lives in London.

Jane is 25 years old.


Difference between data and information

Data Information
Raw facts Collection of data
Processed Not processed
Unorganized Organize
Simple Complex
Meaningless Meaningful
Can’t use for decision making Can use for decision making


Characteristics of good information

Next we are going to speak about characteristics of good information. This is a famous topic in data and information concepts. A good information can help to make good decision making. So let’s see what are those qualities.

  • Relevant – Relevant means the relevance or validity of a information for a particular decision making process. As an example if you want to find the fastest way to travel Kandy then you need the travelling time by train and bus. The price of train ticket and bus ticket would be irrelevant for that decision making.
  • Timely – Timely information means the information should be available at the right time for the decision making. As an example if you have an interview today you need today weather forecast before leave home. Then you can prepare for the rainy climate. If it is going to be rain then you can take a cab and go. If you receive the weather forecast after you leaves home and you caught up to the rain that would not be timely information.
  • Accurate – Error free information is known as accurate information. The information can contain errors. Errors can occur in both input and process time. If the input had errors then automatically output also will have errors.
  • Reliable – Reliable means the correctness of the information. If the information are wrong then the decision we make based on those information will be wrong also. As an example if we did a market survey for a new product launch and the information provided was incorrect. If we launch a new product based on those information most probably product launch will fail. Because the we didn’t have the correct information related to the customer requirements.
  • Flexible – If the information is flexible we can use it for many purposes.
  • Understandable – If the information are simple and anyone can easily understand then it helps much for the decision making. If no one can understand the information even it is organized it will be useless. It will reduce the usability of the information.
  • Complete – Information needs to be complete. Again if we use incomplete information for the decision making the decisions we take will be wrong. In business it can leads to a grate loss. As an simple example in a lecture timetable you should see the lecture and the time, allocated class room. If one of thing is missing you will find trouble on attending to the lectures.
  • Accessibility – Accessibility is the rights we have for the information. That means whether we can access those information. As an example students details in a school are not accessible by third parties. Only school have those information. Yet if some information if we can’t access then it would also be useless. If a sales person cannot check the inventory report then he or she can’t reorder the products for the available time.

Types of data

We almost have discuss about data and information. Now we are going to look at what are the types of data. There are four types of data. They are,

Images – Images are the photos. The files contain .jpg, .png, .jpeg are image extensions and they are images.

Audio – The files we can hear sounds are audio files. The songs are example for audio files. Files contain .mp3 format are audio files.

Video –  The movies, video clips are video type data. We can see and hear sound in this type of data. Mp4 files are example for the video types data.

Alphanumeric – Alphanumeric can divided into three sub types again. They are numbers , letters and special characters.

Numbers are from 0 -9.Letters are from A – Z

Special characters – . , $ # % & *


Applicability of information in day to day life

Mostly in the businesses we use Information. Not only in business many organization use information for many purposes. We do things mostly based on the information. As an simple example you won’t buy a mobile phone of brand which you don’t know. Most of the time we do the decision making based on the information we know. Therefore for the decision making we use information.

For the planning purpose we use information. If we want to plan a trip we gather information related to that. Then after we so the planning. As another example if we want to launch a new product to the market firstly we will do a market research and see how the market behavior for it. Then we can plan when to release the product, what is the price, necessary changes. Likewise we can use information for the planning.

For scheduling and monitoring purposes also we use information. And also to do the predictions also we use information.

Abstract model of information creation

We use a model for creating information. Now firstly we are going to see that. It has three components. Those three components are,

Input – Input are the data which we insert for the processing.

Process – In the processing task the data will organized and processed according to the method.

Output – The thing which we retrieve is the output. That is information. Once after data is processed it becomes information

Quick Rap

What is data?

  • Data means raw facts.

What are information?

  • Information means collection of data.

Data vs Information

Data Information
Raw facts Collection of data
Processed Not processed
Unorganized Organize
Simple Complex
Meaningless Meaningful
Can’t use for decision making Can use for decision making


Characteristics of good Information

  • Relevant
  • Timely
  • Accurate
  • Reliable
  • Complete
  • Economical
  • Understandable
  • Accessibility
  • Flexibility

Four types of data

  • Image
  • Audio
  • Video
  • Alphanumeric
    • Letters
    • Numbers
    • Special Characters

Abstract model of information creation

  • Input -> process -> output



From beginning we have spoke many data and information concepts. Now I am going to conclude this post. If you like this post please comment and let us know how you feel about our posts.  You can visit our other post also if you are interested. If you interested in developing please visit our payment gateway implementation post.


Audy Ranathunga

Audy Ranathunga, Author of myexamnote is our most experienced author. She has been working as a blog post writer for 4 years. She joined with myexamnote before 1 year ago and she has contribute lots of valuable posts for readers.

This Post Has 2 Comments

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    Tim Wetklow

    I like this web blog so much, saved to my bookmarks. “American soldiers must be turned into lambs and eating them is tolerated.” by Muammar Qaddafi.

    1. Audy Ranathunga
      Audy Ranathunga

      Thank you!

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