Information Systems
Information systems

Information Systems

How are you friends? Hope everyone is fine. Today I am bringing you another information system and technology post. Today we are going to see the topic information systems. So let’s see what are the things we are going to talk about under information systems.

Post outline
  • What is a system
  • What is system boundary
  • System types and characteristics
    • Simple
    • Complex
    • Open
    • Closed
    • Stable
    • Dynamic
    • Adaptive
    • Non – adaptive
    • Permanent
    • Temporary
  • System performances standards
    • Efficiency
    • Effectiveness
  • What is an information system
  • Main components of an information system
  • Activities of an information system
  • How to model a system


What is a system?

Before learn about information system it’s better to learn about what is a system. In general system is a collection of components. Systems work to achieve a goal. There are sub components in a system. They are inter connected with each other. All of them work to achieve a common goal. In individually they might perform different functions from each other. Yet their individual functions help to achieve a main goal. So all together system is a collection of inter related components that working together to achieve a common goal. Systems have different things. They are inputs, a processing mechanism, outputs and a feedback.

What is system boundary?

Systems interact with both internal and external environment. Environment is the nature that system interact with or the surroundings the system interact with. It includes variables and controls. The scope separate the inner and outer environment we call as system boundary.

System types and characteristics

We can define systems into different types. Let’s look at them now.

Simple Complex
Open Closed
Stable Dynamic
Adaptive Non-adaptive
Permanent Temporary



The simple systems have few components. Those components interaction with each other is not a very complicated one. Anyone can easily understand their relationship. As an example for a simple system we can take a well. Well is giving water to the people. It collects rain water and water from other water resources and gives to the human.


This is the opposite of simple systems. Unlike simple system these are not easy to understand. These systems consists with many components. Their relationship and understanding how they work is not easy. As an example for the complex systems we can take a water supply system. Compared to the well water supply system is much complex. Both does the same thing giving water to the people. Yet in the water management system there are many components. It uses pipes and devices to increase pressure, motors and many things.


These types of systems interact with the environment. Human body is an example for open system. It has the five senses. Through eyes ears, skin, tongue, nose it contacts with the environment.


Closed systems are not interacting with environment. Paper marking is a closed system. When marking students’ question papers the panel has no interaction with outside.


Stable systems are the system which has a little changes happens in the system. Time to time system environment is not going to change. They undergoes very little changes over time. The Law system is an example for a stable system. The laws, processes does not change frequently over time.


Dynamic systems undergoes rapid and constant changes over the time. As an example we can take the human body. The human body goes through rapid changes time to time. Heart rate. Blood pressure and body temperature goes through rapid changes.


The adaptive systems can adopt with the environmental changes. The human body we can take as an example for the adaptive systems. The human body sweats a lot when we feel hot. Because of that our body gets cool and reduce the body temperature.

Non – adaptive

The systems which are not change and adopt according to the environment are known as non – adaptive systems. A bottle we can take as a non – adaptive system. After it made it is not change according to the environment.


The permanent systems exist for a long time. As an example we can take a school. A school stays a one place for a long time for studying for the students.


The systems which are exist for a short time period are known as temporary systems. The Christmas cards are creating for the Christmas season only. We can take it as an example for the temporary system.

System performances and standards


We use efficiency to compare the systems. We can calculate the efficiency by dividing the produced by the consumed things. It can takes values from zero to 100. In other words we can define the efficiency as doing things right.


We can use this also for comparing the systems. Effectiveness means whether the system achieve its goal. In other words we can explain it as doing right thing.

What is an information system?

An information system is a collection of interrelated components which collect, process, disseminate, store and distribute data and information with a feedback to meet an objective.

Main components of an information system

There are four main components in information systems. They are input, processing, output and feedback.

Input – Data is a one of input for the information systems. Sometimes information output of a one system is an input for another system. We can identify input as a function also. Gathering and capturing data for the system is also known as input which is an activity.

Processing – Processing is the step which coverts data into information. Several things can happen in this step. Doing calculations, doing comparisons and storing data are the processes which happens in the processing step.

Output – This is the end result we get after processing. If input correct data it will give us correct information.

Feedback – According to the information which we collect at the end of processing we do analysis. If the information are correct or wrong. If then we do a feedback. Feedback is a process which we used to use as a correction option for processing and input. Through that we can eliminate the faults in the processing and the inputs.

Activities of an Information system

Now we are going to see what are the activities of an information system. An information system has five activities. They are,

  • Input data resources
  • Processing of data into information
  • Output of information products
  • Storage of data resources
  • Control of system performances

How to Model a system

Before we discuss the modeling concepts firstly we will what is mean by a model. A model is a representation of a reality. A way we represent our ideas. There are four modeling types we are using. They are narrative model, physical model, schematic model, mathematical model.

Narrative model – This model is based on words. Written and verbal descriptions are known as a narrative model. Documents, discussions we can take as examples.

Physical model – This type of a representation is a tangible thing. We can touch, see the model. This type of a model is physically available. A model which created from blocks for a new building we can take as an example for the physical model.

Schematic model – This is models are intangible. We can take examples as charts, graphs, images as examples.

Mathematical model – An arithmetic representation of reality is known as mathematical model. Excel and calculations, equations we can take as examples for a mathematical model.

Quick Rap

  • System is a collection of interrelated components that works together to achieve a common goal.
  • The scope which separate system in and out environments is known as system boundary.
  • Information system is a collection of interrelated components which collect, process, disseminate, store and distribute data and information with a feedback to meet an objective.
  • Input, output, feedback, process are the four components of information system.
  • Efficiency means doing things right.
  • Effectiveness doing the right thing.
  • The four model types are narrative model, physical model, schematic model, mathematical model.


I am concluding information systems post from here. Hope you would like this. If you interested please visit our data and information concepts. We will meet with another interesting topic again. Until goodbye all.


Audy Ranathunga

Audy Ranathunga, Author of myexamnote is our most experienced author. She has been working as a blog post writer for 4 years. She joined with myexamnote before 1 year ago and she has contribute lots of valuable posts for readers.

This Post Has 2 Comments

  1. Avatar
    Waneta Riecke

    I?¦ve read several good stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how so much attempt you place to create this type of excellent informative web site.

    1. Audy Ranathunga
      Audy Ranathunga

      Thank you!

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